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OVERVIEW OF TOKYO

THE STRUCTURE OF THE TOKYO METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT (TMG)

Organizational Structure of TMG

Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly

- Composition

The Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly is made up of 127 members directly elected by Tokyo citizens to serve a term of four years.

- The President

The President of the Assembly is elected from among its members. The President represents the Assembly, presides over its sessions, and supervises its affairs. He or she also expresses the Assembly’s opinions externally. As a support organization for the Assembly, a Secretariat is provided and the President is empowered to appoint and dismiss its staff members.

- Committees

Because the structure and contents of the metropolitan administration are vast, varied, and complex, in order to ensure thorough discussion and efficient proceedings, the Assembly establishes committees for specialized study and discussion. The committees are divided into standing committees and special committees set up by the Assembly to consider specific subjects.

- Authority of the Assembly

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The Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly is the formal decision-making organ of Tokyo Metropolis. It has the authority to, among other things, enact, amend, and repeal metropolitan ordinances, approve the budget and certify its settlement, and elect members of the Election Administration Commission and other such bodies. In addition, the consent of the Assembly must be sought for important appointments, nominations, and other designations made by the Governor such as those of a Vice Governor or administrative commission member. Representing the people of Tokyo, the Assembly also has the powers to investigate and inspect all aspects of the metropolitan government.

Executive Organs

- The Governor

The Governor is directly elected by the citizens, and represents the Metropolis of Tokyo. With a four-year term of office, he or she has overall control of metropolitan affairs, and the authority and responsibility for managing the metropolitan administration. For the ward area, the Governor may take on the nature of mayor.

- Auxiliary Administrative Agencies

To assist the Governor in dealing with the affairs within his authority, Vice Governors and other staff members are provided. A total of 165,483 positions have been approved as of April 1, 2012, for staff members of these auxiliary administrative agencies. (Breakdown: Governor’s bureaus, 24,096; administrative commissions and the Assembly, 1,005; public enterprises, 13,188; police/fire fighting, 64,221; school staff, 62,973.)

Personnel

- Recruitment

The Personnel Commission usually holds examinations for the recruitment of new staff, and candidates who pass the examinations are employed by the Governor and other officials who have appointive powers. In some occupations like nursing, specially authorized officials directly conduct exams and employ personnel.

Recruitment examinations are conducted after being publicly announced to ensure wide public awareness, and they include written examinations and interviews. These examinations are split into different levels according to the difficulty of the questions. The examinations are completely open to everyone on an equal basis regardless of gender, academic background, or social position.

Nationality requirements on about 70% of all occupations have been removed, opening up employment opportunities to foreign nationals. To accelerate the employment of disabled persons, examinations are held in Braille or using enlarged print, and special selection of people with physical impairments is conducted.

- Appointment

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government's personnel appointment system is based on ability and job performance. Through a fair and impartial selection process for new staff that is not swayed by factors such as recruitment category or academic background, promotion to team leader, deputy director, and managerial positions would depend on the efforts of the individual.

Based on individual career aspirations, “generalization” or “specialization” can be chosen, resulting in a variety of paths for promotion. Young senior staff members are eligible to take the “Managerial Position Selection A” test and, if selected, they are trained to assume managerial positions requiring a metropolitan administration-wide perspective. Team leaders and deputy directors are eligible to take the “Managerial Position Selection B” test, which selects personnel based on their experience and achievements for managerial positions centering on their area of specialty. There is also a selection process for specialists to take on managerial positions in specific areas.

- Human Resource Development

In order to respond to the increasingly sophisticated and complex needs of the Tokyo residents for administrative services, as well as to develop human resources possessing a high level of knowledge, ability, and experience who can cope with the various challenges Tokyo faces, the metropolitan government has drawn up a set of basic guidelines aimed at developing metropolitan government personnel. Under these guidelines, efforts are taken to manage personnel with a focus on human resource development; this includes training, performance evaluation, and deployment of personnel resources.

The basic perspectives in bolstering employee training are to shape individual staff capabilities to match organization needs and to develop individual capabilities to the fullest in order to answer the aspirations of the individuals to raise their competency. From this perspective, the metropolitan government is implementing a practical and detailed human resource development program that effectively combines (1) On-the-job training through daily duties in the workplace, (2) Off-the-job training undertaken away from daily duties, and (3) Personal development through self-education.

Organization of the TMG (as of April 1, 2012)
Organization of the TMG
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